home Cnc Machining Guide Several main components of cnc machining center

Several main components of cnc machining center

Since the advent of cnc machining center, various types have appeared. Although the appearance and structure are different, the seven parts are composed of the following parts:

  • Basic components. Composed of large parts such as the bed, column and worktable, it is the basic component of the CNC machining center. They can be cast iron parts or welded steel structural parts, all of which must bear the static load of the CNC machining center and the cutting during processing Load. Therefore, it must be a component with high rigidity, and also a component with the largest quality and volume of the CNC machining center.
  • Spindle assembly. It is composed of spindle motor, spindle box, spindle and spindle support and other parts. Its starting, stopping and rotation are controlled by the numerical control system, and the cutting motion is carried out by the tool mounted on the spindle. It is the power output part of cutting processing. . The spindle is a key component of the CNC machining center, and its structure has a great impact on the performance of the CNC machining center.
  • Control system. The numerical control part of a single cnc machining center is composed of a CNC device, a programmable controller, a servo drive device, and a motor. They are the control centers for cnc machining centers to perform sequential control actions and complete the machining process.
  • Servo system. The function of the servo system is to convert the signal from the numerical control device into the movement of the moving parts of the machine tool. Its performance is one of the main factors that determine the machining accuracy, surface quality and production efficiency of the machine tool. CNC machining centers generally adopt three control modes: semi-closed loop, closed loop and mixed loop.
  • Automatic tool change device. It is composed of tool magazine, manipulator and drive mechanism. The tool magazine is a device that stores all the tools used in the machining process. The tool magazine has various forms such as disc type, hat type and chain type, and the capacity ranges from a few to hundreds. When the tool needs to be changed, the manipulator (or by other means) takes the tool out of the tool magazine and loads it into the spindle according to the CNC system instruction. The structure of the manipulator has many forms according to the relative position and structure of the tool magazine and the spindle. Some cnc machining centers do not use a manipulator but use the movement of the headstock or tool magazine to change the tool. Although the tool change process, tool selection method, tool magazine structure, manipulator type, etc. are different, they are all under the control of CNC devices and programmable controllers, and the tool selection and exchange are realized by electric motors, hydraulic or pneumatic mechanisms. When the contact sensor is installed in the mechanism, the error measurement of the tool and the workpiece can also be realized.
  • Automatic pallet*change system. In order to further shorten the non-cutting time, some CNC machining centers are equipped with two automatic workpiece pallets, one is installed on the workbench for processing, and the other is located outside the workbench for workpiece loading and unloading, which can reduce auxiliary time and improve processing efficiency .
  • Auxiliary system. Including lubrication, cooling, chip removal, protection, hydraulic pressure and random detection systems. Although the auxiliary system does not directly participate in the cutting movement, it plays a role in guaranteeing the machining efficiency, machining accuracy and reliability of the CNC machining center, so it is also an indispensable part of the CNC machining center.

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